phantom reconstruction

What is SNARK14?

The reconstruction problem has arisen in a large number of scientific fields (including computerized tomography, electron microscopy, radiology, radio astronomy and holography). Many different methods (algorithms) have been suggested for its solution.

SNARK14 is a programming system for the reconstruction of 2D images from 1D projections. It is designed to help researchers interested in developing and evaluating reconstruction algorithms.

In the area of image reconstruction, researchers often desire to compare two or more reconstruction techniques and assess their relative merits. SNARK14 provides a uniform framework in which to implement algorithms and evaluate their performance. SNARK14 has been designed to treat both parallel and divergent projection geometries and can create test data for use by reconstruction algorithms. A number of frequently used reconstruction algorithms are incorporated.

New in SNARK14

SNARK14 is an updated version of SNARK09. The following are the major advances that are incorporated into the SNARK14 package:


SNARK14 is a descendant of earlier releases of SNARK, the first one of which was written by Richard Gordon in 1970 in FORTRAN.

SNARK77 and SNARK89 were specifically designed to help with the problem of reconstructing cross-sections of the X-ray absorption coefficient distribution inside the body from X-ray projections. SNARK93 extended this capability to include positron emission tomography, PET.

The SNARK93 programming system was implemented in FORTRAN77. It was designed to

The previous version, SNARK09, was implemented in C++. The following were the major advances that were incorporated into the SNARK09 package:

A variant of SNARK, which is suitable for the reconstruction of 3D images from 2D projections, is jSNARK that was written and is maintained by Stuart Rowland.


This website is being maintained by Edgar Garduño, Ze Ye, and Gabor T. Herman. The major developments of SNARK09 and SNARK14 were done by Ran Davidi, Joanna Klukowska, Oliver Langthaler and Bernhard Prommegger.

This page was originally designed by Joanna Klukowska and was consequently updated by Ze Ye, Gabor T. Herman and Edgar Garduño.