01219nas a2200157 4500008004100000020002200041245004900063210004700112260003200159300000900191520077000200100002300970700001500993700001801008856003501026 2013 eng d a978-3-642-32816-900aFacing Complexity: Prediction vs. Adaptation0 aFacing Complexity Prediction vs Adaptation aBerlin HeidelbergbSpringer a3-143 aOne of the presuppositions of science since the times of Galileo, Newton, Laplace, and Descartes has been the predictability of the world. This idea has strongly influenced scientific and technological models. However, in recent decades, chaos and complexity have shown that not every phenomenon is predictable, even if it is deterministic. If a problem space is predictable, in theory we can find a solution via optimization. Nevertheless, if a problem space is not predictable, or it changes too fast, very probably optimization will offer obsolete solutions. This occurs often when the immediate solution affects the problem itself. An alternative is found in adaptation. An adaptive system will be able to find by itself new solutions for unforeseen situations.1 aGershenson, Carlos1 aMassip, A.1 aBastardas, A. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1112.3843