TY - JOUR
T1 - Measuring the Complexity of Continuous Distributions
JF - Entropy
Y1 - 2016
A1 - Santamaría-Bonfil, Guillermo
A1 - Fernández, Nelson
A1 - Gershenson, Carlos
AB - We extend previously proposed measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to continuous distributions using differential entropy. Given that the measures were based on Shannon's information, the novel continuous complexity measures describe how a system's predictability changes in terms of the probability distribution parameters. This allows us to calculate the complexity of phenomena for which distributions are known. We find that a broad range of common parameters found in Gaussian and scale-free distributions present high complexity values. We also explore the relationship between our measure of complexity and information adaptation.
VL - 18
UR - http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/18/3/72
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Multimodel agent-based simulation environment for mass-gatherings and pedestrian dynamics
JF - Future Generation Computer Systems
Y1 - 2016
A1 - Vladislav Karbovskii
A1 - Daniil Voloshin
A1 - Andrey Karsakov
A1 - Alexey Bezgodov
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
KW - Urgent computing
AB - Abstract The increasing interest in complex phenomena, especially in crowd and pedestrian dynamics, has conditioned the demand not only for more sophisticated autonomous models but also for mechanisms that would bring these models together. This paper presents a multimodel agent-based simulation technique based on the incorporation of multiple modules. Two key principles are presented to guide this integration: a common abstract space where entities of different models interact, and commonly controlled agents–-abstract actors operating in the common space, which can be handled by different agent-based models. In order to test the proposed methodology, we run a set of simulations of cinema building evacuation using the general-purpose \{PULSE\} simulation environment. In this paper we utilize crowd pressure as a metric to estimate the capacity of different emergent conditions to traumatically affect pedestrians in the crowd. The proposed approach is evaluated through a series of experiments simulating the emergency evacuation from a cinema building to the city streets, where building and street levels are reproduced in heterogeneous models. This approach paves the way for modeling realistic city-wide evacuations.
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2016.10.002
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Measuring the complexity of adaptive peer-to-peer systems
JF - Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
Y1 - 2015
A1 - Amoretti, Michele
A1 - Gershenson, Carlos
KW - Adaptive peer-to-peer system
KW - Complexity
KW - Evolution
KW - Information theory
AB - To improve the efficiency of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems while adapting to changing environmental conditions, static peer-to-peer protocols can be replaced by adaptive plans. The resulting systems are inherently complex, which makes their development and characterization a challenge for traditional methods. Here we propose the design and analysis of adaptive P2P systems using measures of complexity, emergence, self-organization, and homeostasis based on information theory. These measures allow the evaluation of adaptive P2P systems and thus can be used to guide their design. We evaluate the proposal with a P2P computing system provided with adaptation mechanisms. We show the evolution of the system with static and also changing workload, using different fitness functions. When the adaptive plan forces the system to converge to a predefined performance level, the nodes may result in highly unstable configurations, which correspond to a high variance in time of the measured complexity. Conversely, if the adaptive plan is less ``aggressive'', the system may be more stable, but the optimal performance may not be achieved.
SN - 1936-6442
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12083-015-0385-4
ER -
TY - CHAP
T1 - Modelling Complexity for Policy: Opportunities and Challenges
T2 - Handobook on Complexity and Public Policy
Y1 - 2015
A1 - Bruce Edmonds
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
ED - Robert Geyer
ED - Paul Cairney
JF - Handobook on Complexity and Public Policy
PB - Edward Elgar
ER -
TY - CHAP
T1 - Measuring Complexity in an Aquatic Ecosystem
T2 - Advances in Computational Biology
Y1 - 2014
A1 - Fernández, Nelson
A1 - Gershenson, Carlos
ED - Castillo, Luis F.
ED - Cristancho, Marco
ED - Isaza, Gustavo
ED - Pinzón, Andrés
ED - Corchado Rodríguez, Juan Manuel
AB - We apply formal measures of emergence, self-organization, homeostasis, autopoiesis and complexity to an aquatic ecosystem; in particular to the physiochemical component of an Arctic lake. These measures are based on information theory. Variables with an homogeneous distribution have higher values of emergence, while variables with a more heterogeneous distribution have a higher self-organization. Variables with a high complexity reflect a balance between change (emergence) and regularity/order (self-organization). In addition, homeostasis values coincide with the variation of the winter and summer seasons. Autopoiesis values show a higher degree of independence of biological components over their environment. Our approach shows how the ecological dynamics can be described in terms of information.
JF - Advances in Computational Biology
T3 - Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
PB - Springer
VL - 232
UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.5413
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Measuring the Complexity of Self-organizing Traffic Lights
JF - Entropy
Y1 - 2014
A1 - Darío Zubillaga
A1 - Geovany Cruz
A1 - Luis Daniel Aguilar
A1 - Jorge Zapotécatl
A1 - Nelson Fernández
A1 - José Aguilar
A1 - David A. Rosenblueth
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
AB - We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby's law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.
VL - 16
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e16052384
ER -
TY - UNPB
T1 - Measuring the Complexity of Ultra-Large-Scale Evolutionary Systems
Y1 - 2013
A1 - Michele Amoretti
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
AB - Ultra-large scale (ULS) systems are becoming pervasive. They are inherently complex, which makes their design and control a challenge for traditional methods. Here we propose the design and analysis of ULS systems using measures of complexity, emergence, self-organization, and homeostasis based on information theory. We evaluate the proposal with a ULS computing system provided with genetic adaptation mechanisms. We show the evolution of the system with stable and also changing workload, using different fitness functions. When the adaptive plan forces the system to converge to a predefined performance level, the nodes may result in highly unstable configurations, that correspond to a high variance in time of the measured complexity. Conversely, if the adaptive plan is less "aggressive", the system may be more stable, but the optimal performance may not be achieved.
UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.6656
N1 - Submitted to Computer Networks
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - A model of city traffic based on elementary cellular automata
JF - Complex Systems
Y1 - 2011
A1 - David A. Rosenblueth
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
AB - There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136.
VL - 19
UR - http://www.complex-systems.com/pdf/19-4-1.pdf
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Modular Random {Boolean} Networks
JF - Artificial Life
Y1 - 2011
A1 - Rodrigo {Poblanno-Balp}
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
AB - Random Boolean networks (RBNs) have been a popular model of genetic regulatory networks for more than four decades. However, most RBN studies have been made with random topologies, while real regulatory networks have been found to be modular. In this work, we extend classical RBNs to define modular RBNs. Statistical experiments and analytical results show that modularity has a strong effect on the properties of RBNs. In particular, modular RBNs have more attractors and are closer to criticality when chaotic dynamics would be expected, compared to classical RBNs.
PB - MIT Press
VL - 17
UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.1893
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Mechanical Love. Phie Ambo. (2009, Icarus Films.) $390, 52 min.
JF - Artificial Life
Y1 - 2010
A1 - Gershenson, Carlos
A1 - Meza, Iván V.
A1 - Avilés, Héctor
A1 - Pineda, Luis A.
VL - 16
UR - http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/artl_r_00004
ER -
TY - CHAP
T1 - Modular Random {Boolean} Networks
T2 - {Artificial Life XII} Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems
Y1 - 2010
A1 - Rodrigo {Poblanno-Balp}
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
ED - Harold Fellermann
ED - Mark Dörr
ED - Martin M. Hanczyc
ED - Lone Ladegaard Laursen
ED - Sarah Maurer
ED - Daniel Merkle
ED - Pierre-Alain Monnard
ED - Kasper St$ø$y
ED - Steen Rasmussen
JF - {Artificial Life XII} Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems
PB - MIT Press
CY - Odense, Denmark
UR - http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/0262290758chap56.pdf
ER -
TY - UNPB
T1 - Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata
Y1 - 2009
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
A1 - David A. Rosenblueth
AB - There have been several highway traffic models proposed based on cellular automata. The simplest one is elementary cellular automaton rule 184. We extend this model to city traffic with cellular automata coupled at intersections using only rules 184, 252, and 136. The simplicity of the model offers a clear understanding of the main properties of city traffic and its phase transitions. We use the proposed model to compare two methods for coordinating traffic lights: a green-wave method that tries to optimize phases according to expected flows and a self-organizing method that adapts to the current traffic conditions. The self-organizing method delivers considerable improvements over the green-wave method. For low densities, the self-organizing method promotes the formation and coordination of platoons that flow freely in four directions, i.e. with a maximum velocity and no stops. For medium densities, the method allows a constant usage of the intersections, exploiting their maximum flux capacity. For high densities, the method prevents gridlocks and promotes the formation and coordination of "free-spaces" that flow in the opposite direction of traffic.
UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.1925
N1 - Submitted
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - The Meaning of Self-Organization in Computing
JF - IEEE Intelligent Systems
Y1 - 2003
A1 - Francis Heylighen
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
UR - http://pcp.vub.ac.be/Papers/IEEE.Self-organization.pdf
ER -
TY - CONF
T1 - A Model for Combination of External and Internal Stimuli in the Action Selection of an Autonomous Agent
T2 - {MICAI} 2000: Advances in Artificial Intelligence
Y1 - 2000
A1 - P. P. González
A1 - J. Negrete
A1 - A. Barreiro
A1 - C. Gershenson.
ED - {O. Cairó
ED - L. E. Súcar, F.J. Cantú
AB - This paper proposes a model for combination of external and internal stimuli for the action selection in an autonomous agent, based in an action selection mechanism previously proposed by the authors. This combination model includes additive and multiplicative elements, which allows to incorporate new properties, which enhance the action selection. A given parameter a, which is part of the proposed model, allows to regulate the degree of dependence of the observed external behaviour from the internal states of the entity.
JF - {MICAI} 2000: Advances in Artificial Intelligence
T3 - Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
PB - Springer, Verlag
CY - Acapulco, México
VL - 1793
UR - http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/cs.AI/0211040
ER -
TY - CONF
T1 - Modelling Intracellular Signalling Networks Using Behaviour-Based Systems and the Blackboard Architecture
T2 - Proceedings of the International Conference: Mathematics and Computers in Biology and Chemistry {(MCBC} 2000)
Y1 - 2000
A1 - P. P. González
A1 - C. Gershenson
A1 - M. Cárdenas
A1 - J. Lagunez
AB - This paper proposes to model the intracellular signalling networks using a fusion of behaviour-based systems and the blackboard architecture. In virtue of this fusion, the model developed by us, which has been named Cellulat, allows to take account two essential aspects of the intracellular signalling networks: (1) the cognitive capabilities of certain types of networks' components and (2) the high level of spatial organization of these networks. A simple example of modelling of Ca2+ signalling pathways using Cellulat is presented here. An intracellular signalling virtual laboratory is being developed from Cellulat.
JF - Proceedings of the International Conference: Mathematics and Computers in Biology and Chemistry {(MCBC} 2000)
CY - Montego Bay, Jamaica
UR - http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/cs.MA/0211029
ER -
TY - CONF
T1 - Modelling Emotions with Multidimensional Logic
T2 - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society {(NAFIPS} '99)
Y1 - 1999
A1 - Carlos Gershenson
AB - One of the objectives of Artificial Intelligence has been the modelling of "human" characteristics, such as emotions, behaviour, conscience, etc. But in such characteristics we might find certain degree of contradiction. Previous work on modelling emotions and its problems are reviewed. A model for emotions is proposed using multidimensional logic, which handles the degree of contradiction that emotions might have. The model is oriented to simulate emotions in artificial societies. The proposed solution is also generalized for actions which might overcome contradiction (conflictive goals in agents, for example).
JF - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society {(NAFIPS} '99)
PB - IEEE Press
CY - New York City, NY
UR - http://tinyurl.com/yek3ms
ER -