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action selection mechanism. (ASM) A mechanism that computes which action should be executed by a behaviour-based system in dependence of the internal state and the external perceptions. (See Section 3.1.)

adaptation. The act or process of adapting or fitting.

agent. An actor. We define an agent as a system which has goals to fulfill.

animat. Artificial animal. Simulated animal or autonomous robot (Wilson, 1985).

appetitive behaviour. An appetitive behaviour is one that leads indirectly to the satisfaction of a motivation (e.g. approach food in order to satiate your hunger).

autonomy. The ability of self control.

behaviour. The action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances.

behaviour-based system. (BBS) An ethologically inspired system which provides the control to an artificial creature.

behavioural basis of cognition. We believe that cognition has a basis in adaptive behaviour. In order to understand and reproduce cognition, we need to understand and reproduce adaptive behaviour first. (See Introduction and Conclusions.)

behaviours production system. (BPS) A system that produces behaviour in order to control an autonomous agent. This production in most cases will be emergent. (See Section 3.2.)

belief. Acceptance of a fact, opinion, or proposition.

cognition. Knowledge. Understanding. Faculty of understanding things, compare them, make judgements, and deductions.

collective misbelief. Mistaken belief, caused and reinforced by the reciprocal beliefs on the actions of others. (See Section 6.2.4.)

competition. Contest, strife.

complex system. A complex system is composed of several elements interacting among them. The complexity of a system depends on the number of elements that conform it, the number of interactions among the elements, and the complexities of the elements and the interactions. (See Section 2.1.)

conscious behaviour. Behaviour executed while being aware of it. (See Introduction.)

consummatory behaviour. A consummatory behaviour is one that leads directly to the satisfaction of a motivation (e.g. eat in order to satiate your hunger).

emergent property. Emergent properties arise from the interactions of the components of a system, but are not present in the components themselves.

ethology. Branch of biology that studies animal behaviour.

goal. Final purpose or aim. The end of an action.

induction. The act of introducing or bringing in.

intelligence. We need a being to perform an action in order to judge his/her/its intelligence. Intelligent actions are the ones people judge to be intelligent. (See Section 1.1.1.)

imitation. The following or copying of a pattern, model or example.

motivation. The reason for the action.

motivated behaviour. A motivated behaviour requires an internal need (motivation) in order to be executed. (See Introduction and Section 3.7.)

opportunism. The art or practice of taking advantage of opportunities or circumstances.

plasticity. Adaptation ability of neural circuits by connection or disconnection of parts of the circuit. Ability of learning in neural circuits.

reactive behaviour. A behaviour that shows a strong dependence of an external stimulus. (See Introduction and Section 3.6.)

reasoned behaviour. Behaviour that is selected using of concepts. (See Introduction.)

reflex behaviour. A fast action triggered by the perception of a particular stimulus. (See Introduction and Section 3.5.)

robustness. A system is considered robust if its functionality degrades "gracefully" when components of the system stop working.

situatedness. An agent is situated in his environment if he can perceive it and act upon it.

social action. A social action is an action that deals with another entity as his similar (Castelfranchi, 1998). (See Section 2.2.)

sociality. The condition of a group when its members interact among them socially (i.e. through social actions).

society. A group of individuals exhibiting intelligence interacting among them through social actions.

vegetative behaviour. Internal actions in charge of the survival of the organism (e.g. metabolism). (See Introduction.)


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Carlos Gershenson