Energy In California: Power Struggle, Nature
Excerpts: For decades, California has bucked the US trend of gobbling ever more electricity. But can the state pull off an even more ambitious goal and slash its greenhouse-gas emissions?
The strategies that helped California achieve those conservation goals may now help it in its greenhouse-gas cuts. State energy experts, including Rosenfeld, don't foresee California adopting many radical new technologies to meet its ambitious goals. Rather, a steady application of proven technologies should do much of the job. (...) It [California, Ed.] is the planet's ninth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases.
Reconfiguring Environmental Governance: Towards A Politics Of Scales And Networks, Polit. Geo.
Excerpts: This paper seeks to develop an alternative account of the geographies of environmental governance to those current conceptions which tend to take space and scale for granted as pre-given, contained, natural entities. Through an engagement with the debates on the politics of scale, the argument is made that a new spatial grammar of environmental governance must be sensitive to both the politics of scale and the politics of networks. Rather than considering scalar and non-scalar interpretations of spatiality as necessarily opposite, the paper argues that through a more careful deployment of concepts of hierarchy (...).
Looking For Alien Intelligence In The Computational Universe, New Scientist
Excerpts: Instead of scanning the heavens for alien radio broadcasts, he thinks we should be looking much closer to home. Much, much closer: ET could be living or working with you. But the truly amazing thing about Wolfram's claim is that he believes all the knowledge we stand to gain from an extraterrestrial intelligence - surely the best reason for getting to know the alien in the first place - is already ours for the taking. (...) Advanced civilization could be little more than a mouse click away
Life Is What You Make It, Nature
Excerpts: This issue celebrates the emerging field of synthetic biology.
How's this for creativity? Take Escherichia coli bacteria. Transform them into light-sensitive organisms by fusing a photoreceptor from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis to a protein in the E. coli membrane. Make a film (in both senses) of such bacteria and use them to record an image with a resolution of 100 megapixels per square inch.
Achieving this neat trick required researchers to engineer component parts of gene circuitry. This bottom-up engineering is often referred to as synthetic biology.
Synthetic Biology: Designs On Life, Nature
Excerpts: But it is hard to find scientists who are trained and interested in both biology and engineering to fuel the development of this new science. So, like true engineers, the founding synthetic biologists are trying to build their future colleagues from the ground up. To do so, they have commandeered a time-honoured engineering tradition: the student competition. The iGEM event began life as a project class for MIT students in 2003. Last year, it was thrown open to other US universities, and this year it went international.
Design Principles Of A Bacterial Signalling Network, Nature
Excerpts: Cellular biochemical networks have to function in a noisy environment using imperfect components. (...) We demonstrate that among these topologies the experimentally established chemotaxis network of Escherichia coli has the smallest sufficiently robust network structure, allowing accurate chemotactic response for almost all individuals within a population. Our results suggest that this pathway has evolved to show an optimal chemotactic performance while minimizing the cost of resources associated with high levels of protein expression. Moreover, the underlying topological design principles compensating for intercellular variations seem to be highly conserved among bacterial chemosensory systems..
Human Dynamics: The Correspondence Patterns of Darwin and Einstein, arXiv
Abstract: While living in different historical era, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were both prolific correspondents: Darwin sent (received) at least 7,591 (6,530) letters during his lifetime while Einstein sent (received) over 14,500 (16,200). Before email scientists were part of an extensive university of letters, the main venue for exchanging new ideas and results. But were the communication patterns of the pre-email times any different from the current era of instant access? Here we show that while the means have changed, the communication dynamics has not: Darwin's and Einstein's pattern of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. Their communication belongs, however, to a different universality class from email communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena capturing human dynamics.
The Network Of Collaboration Among Rappers And Its Community Structure°®, arXiv
Excerpts: In a new paper, the collaboration network of one of the world's most popular music forms, rap music is analyzed using the new statistical techniques applied to scale-free networks. The network is created when different rappers collaborate on each others' songs. Among the most interesting findings is that there is only an average of four degrees of separation between any of the 5,533 rappers in the network studied. When measuring who is the "most connected" rapper based on the number of collaborations as well as the betweenness metric, which measures the number of shortest paths between each rapper, rapper Snoop Dogg is found by both measures to be the most connected rapper. The paper also shows how communities and music labels within rap can be identified with automatic algorithms.
Expression Of Endorphin Gene Favored In Human Evolution, Science
Excerpts: Humans and chimpanzees share at least 98% of their DNA sequences. Yet chimps are an endangered species, whereas humans have used their superior cognition to transform the face of the earth. What makes the difference? Thirty years ago, geneticist Mary-Claire King and biochemist Allan Wilson proposed that changes in how genes are regulated, rather than in the proteins they code for, was the key (Science, 11 April 1975, p. 107).
Software Shakes Up Schizophrenia Diagnosis, Nature
Excerpts: Brain scan analysis could reveal disease before symptoms.
They used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to scan the brains of 69 schizophrenia patients and 79 healthy controls. The images were analysed by computer to produce an algorithm that could tell the two groups apart. Rather than focusing on specific areas of the brain thought to be affected by the disorder, as has been tried in the past, they looked for subtle changes across the whole brain.
(...) able to classify new individuals as schizophrenic or healthy with 81% accuracy
Computer Game Sharpens Aging Minds, Science
Excerpts: Granny may not have the much-coveted Xbox 360 video game console on her Christmas list this year, but if a California company founded by neuroscientists has its way, computer games may soon become must-have items for seniors. Preliminary results presented at the meeting by company researchers suggest that a gamelike training program it has developed can improve memory and attention in elderly people.
Quantum Computing: A Bit Chilly, Nature
Excerpts: A quantum computer needs a constant supply of 'qubits' in a known state. A nuclear magnetic resonance experiment that cools qubits by pumping entropy into a heat bath is a step closer to that goal. On page 470 of this issue, Baugh et al.1 demonstrate progress on one item in a long list of requirements for a functional quantum computer2, 3 - ensuring a continuous supply of the basic carriers of quantum information (quantum bits, or qubits) in known states. The experiment was small-scale, involving just three qubits and slight cooling to prepare them, but it potentially shows the way to preparing larger numbers of qubits in well-defined states.
Staring Into The Dark [Insomnia, Ed.], Science News
Since 2000, prescriptions for sleeping pills have increased in all age groups, nearly doubling for children and young adults. Last year, doctors across the country doled out millions of scripts for Ambien (zolpidem) and its relatives in the group known as hypnotic drugs. Doctors also prescribed unofficial sleep aids, including antidepressants and anti-epileptic drugs, (...).
(...) few of the prescription drugs used to treat insomnia have been tested in sleep trials that lasted longer than 6 weeks. Yet many patients take them nightly for months or even years at a stretch.
Frizzled At The Cutting Edge Of The Synapse, Science
Excerpts: Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted proteins provides a molecular means to process information during animal development and morphogenesis. The first molecular event in Wnt signaling is the interaction of Wnt proteins with members of the Frizzled family of seven-transmembrane cell surface receptors (1, 2). There are different modes of Wnt signaling, and that which ensues in a particular situation is determined by the interaction between individual Frizzled receptors and particular Wnt proteins ( 2).
Complexities And Uncertainties Of Neuronal Network Function, Phil. Tran. Biol.Sc.
Excerpts: The nervous system generates behaviours through the activity in groups of neurons assembled into networks. Understanding these networks is thus essential to our understanding of nervous system function. Understanding a network requires information on its component cells, their interactions and their functional properties. Few networks come close to providing complete information on these aspects. However, even if complete information were available it would still only provide limited insight into network function. This is because the functional and structural properties of a network are not fixed but are plastic and can change over time. (...)
Scale-free Networks in Cell Biology, arXiv
Excerpt: (...) How do we quantitatively describe a network of hundreds or thousands of interacting components? Does the observed topology of cellular networks give us clues about their evolution? How does cellular networks' organization influence their function and dynamical responses? This article will review the recent advances in addressing these questions.
Neuroscientists Put Gene Therapy Into Reverse, Nature
Excerpts: Gene therapy has attracted plenty of fanfare but provided very little in terms of positive results. Giving people new genes to remedy defects in their old ones turns out to be a difficult business. But solid if little-noticed progress is being made in an approach that turns the concept on its head: rather than curing conditions, researchers are finding ways to study brain disease by inserting faulty genes into healthy animals. (...)
Some of the most well-developed models are for Huntington's disease, a fatal movement disorder caused by a single faulty gene.
A Dissemination Strategy for Immunizing Scale-free Networks, arXiv
Excerpts: We consider the problem of distributing a vaccine for immunizing a scale-free network against a given virus or worm. We introduce a new method, based on vaccine dissemination, that seems to reflect more accurately what is expected to occur in real-world networks. (...) For some scenarios, the new method is seen to render the network practically invulnerable to attacks while requiring only a small fraction of the nodes to receive the vaccine.
Method Grows Vessels From One's Own Cells, Science News
Excerpts: Starting with bits of skin, scientists have produced new blood vessels in a laboratory and successfully implanted them into two patients, a medical first.
Previously, vessels grown in a lab had failed to hold together without the support of a synthetic backing. Unfortunately, backing materials such as plastic aren't flexible enough to handle the variable pressures of blood flow. Also, some backings trigger inflammation and attract blood clots.
Bats Have A Feel For Flight, Science
Excerpts: Even in total darkness, bats can execute complex aerial maneuvers to capture prey, thanks to their famed sonarlike skill of echolocation. At the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington, D.C., however, a researcher suggested that a long-ignored feature of bats' wings also helps the creatures perform midair acrobatics and catch insects.
In the 1780s, noted French biologist Georges Cuvier proposed that bats use their sense of touch to fly adeptly in the dark.(...)
Nanotechnology And The End Of Moore's Law?, Bell Labs Tech. J.
Abstract: In this letter, I will discuss the evolution of silicon very large scale integration (VLSI) as described by Moore's Law and how and when nanotechnology is likely to impact it. The evolution will be in three phases. In the first, there will be an increasing number of nanotechnologies that will allow conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) to continue to scale. In the second phase, nanotechnology will allow unconventional CMOS devices to be introduced. In the final phase, a true, new nanodevice will replace the CMOS transistor.
Super-Compressible Foamlike Carbon Nanotube Films, Science
Excerpts: Carbon nanotubes can be linked to produce a rigid foamlike film that can be reversibly compressed to just 15 percent of its original size. (...)
Under compression, the nanotubes collectively form zigzag buckles that can fully unfold to their original length upon load release. Compared with conventional low-density flexible foams, the nanotube films show much higher compressive strength, recovery rate, and sag factor, and the open-cell nature of the nanotube arrays gives excellent breathability. The nanotube films present a class of open-cell foam structures, consisting of well-arranged one-dimensional units (nanotube struts).
Researchers Turn Up The Heat In Superconductivity Hunt, Science
Excerpts: When Peter Johnson and colleagues set out to study the behavior of electrons in high-temperature superconductors, their experiments raised more than a few eyebrows. In 1999, Johnson, a physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, systematically blasted electrons out of a superconductor with bursts of photons. The technique, called angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), can reveal intricate details about how electrons behave inside a material.
Saturn's Strangest Ring Becomes Curiouser And Curiouser, Science
Excerpts: The Cassini spacecraft continues to send back astounding images of Saturn and its retinue of rings and moons. We have become so accustomed to new wonders that it is hard to remember the shock of seeing Saturn's F ring up close for the first time (see the figure). On 12 November 1980, Voyager 1 sent back its first closeup images of this faint and narrow ring orbiting just outside Saturn's main rings. The image revealed what were variously described as kinks, clumps, strands and, most famously, "braids" in the ring.
Tropical Forests And The Changing Earth System, Phil. Tran. Biol.Sc.
Excerpts: Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed (...). Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. (...)
Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Network
Excerpts: Threats of a new 9-11 prompt New York filmmakers to explore The War Within.
As reports of renewed terrorist threats to New York City were made public in October, writer and actor Ayad Akhtar called his wife at home, while on the road, "and begged her not to take the subway."
Threats of terrorism serve to revive memories of Sept. 11 "in ever more vivid and terrifying ways," said Akhtar, a still-grieving, still-skittish New Yorker.
War On Terror Meets War On Cancer, ScienceDaily
Excerpts: A scientific method that has been used to track the source of illegal drugs, explosives, counterfeit bills and biological warfare agents may have some new uses: detecting rapidly growing cancers and studying obesity and eating disorders. The method, known as "stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry," can determine where a substance was produced by "weighing" various forms or isotopes of an element in the substance -- such as the ratio of rare oxygen-18 to common oxygen-16. (...) based on their surprising discovery that water inside the bacterial cells (intracellular water) has a different oxygen-18-to-oxygen-16 ratio than water outside the cells (extracellular water). (...)
Links & Snippets
- Encountering MicroRNAs in Cell Fate Signaling, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros, 05/11/25, Science: 1288-1289.
- Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe, Dagmar Schr?ter, Wolfgang Cramer, Rik Leemans, I. Colin Prentice, Miguel B. Ara?jo, Nigel W. Arnell, Alberte Bondeau, Harald Bugmann, Timothy R. Carter, Carlos A. Gracia, Anne C. de la Vega-Leinert, Markus Erhard, Frank Ewert, Margaret Glendining, Joanna I. House, Susanna Kankaanp??, Richard J. T. Klein, Sandra Lavorel, Marcus Lindner, Marc J. Metzger, Jeannette Meyer, Timothy D. Mitchell, Isabelle Reginster, Mark Rounsevell, Santi Sabat?, Stephen Sitch, Ben Smith, Jo Smith, Pete Smith, Martin T. Sykes, Kirsten Thonicke, Wilfried Thuiller, Gill Tuck, S?nke Zaehle, B?rbel Zierl, 05/11/25, Science : 1333-1337. Published online 27 October 2005 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1115233] (in Science Express Reports) Climate and social changes in Europe over the next 80 years are predicted to degrade ecosystems services such as biodiversity and fresh water, especially in the Mediterranean and mountainous regions.
- Roots Of Climate: Plants' Water Transport Cools Amazon Basin, 05/11/26, Science News, Field tests in the Amazon have for the first time measured daily and seasonal movements of soil moisture through the deep roots of trees.
- Unway Sign: Ant Pheromone Stops Traffic, 05/11/26, Science News, Researchers have found a new kind of traffic sign on ant trails, a chemical "Do not enter" that keeps foragers from wasting their time on paths that don't lead to food.
- DNA Clues To Our Kind: Regulatory Gene Linked To Human Evolution, 05/11/26, Science News, A gene that exerts wide-ranging effects on the brain works harder in people than it does in chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates.
- Sleep Apnea Could Signal Greater Danger, 05/11/26, Science News, The nighttime breathing disorder called obstructive sleep apnea might double a person's risk of death or stroke.
- Antibiotics Afield, 05/11/26, Science News, Antibiotics shed by livestock in manure can end up in crops or bound to soil, where they can foster disease-resistant germs.
- Marrow Cells Boost Ailing Hearts, 05/11/26, Science News, Extracting cells from a heart attack patient's bone marrow and then inserting them into the person's heart via a catheter can improve pumping capacity.
- New Drug Fights Heart Failure, 05/11/26, Science News, The experimental drug levosimendin, in combination with standard drugs, eases heart failure symptoms better than standard drugs alone do.
- Endurance Cycling Tied To Lasting Heart Damage, 05/11/26, Science News, Former professional bicyclers have signs of heart problems nearly 4 decades after competing in grueling endurance events.
- Mapping The Chinese Science Citation Database, L. Leydesdorff - loetleydesdorff.net, J. Bihui - jinbhmail.las.ac.cn, 2005/09/22, Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1002/meet.1450410157
- Keeping And Re-Finding Information On The Web: What Do People Do And What Do They Need?, H. Bruce - harrybu.washington.edu, W. Jones - jonesischool.washington.edu, S. Dumais - sdumaismicrosoft.com, 2005/09/22, Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1002/meet.1450410115
- The Cultural Shaping Of Scholarly Communication: Explaining E-Journal Use Within And Across Academic Fields, J. Fry - jenny.fryniwi.knaw.nl, S. Talja - sanna.taljauta.fi, 2005/09/22, Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1002/meet.1450410103
- Bonabeau Hierarchy Models Revisited, Lucas Lacasa, Bartolo Luque, 2005/11/11, arXiv, DOI: physics/0511105
- Longevity And Ageing: Appraising The Evolutionary Consequences Of Growing Old, M. B. Bonsall, 2005/11/22, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1738
- The First Laugh: New Study Posits Evolutionary Origins Of Two Distinct Types Of Laughter, 2005/11/22, ScienceDaily & University of Chicago Press Journals
- Neurons Generated In The Adult Brain Learn To Respond To Novel Stimuli, 2005/11/23, ScienceDaily & Massachusetts General Hospital
- Einstein's Dark Energy Accelerates The Universe, 2005/11/24, ScienceDaily & Particle Physics & Astronomy Research Council
- Benefits Technology Is Too Complex, Warns NAO Report: Supplier EDS Seeks Involvement In Policy For Simplification, R. Jaques, 2005/11/25, vnunet.com, Computing
- Dishonest Britain Unmasked In Shocking Survey, K. Young, 2005/11/25, vnunet.com
- China's Legislative System And Information: An Overview, S. Xue - sxuelibrary.berkeley.edu, 22:3, 2005, 2005/07/14, Government Information Quarterly, DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2005.05.003
- Misdefining "Climate Change": Consequences For Science And Action, R. A. Pielke, Jr. - pielkecolorado.edu, Dec. 2005, Online 2005/09/28, Environmental Science & Policy, DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2005.06.013
- Disproportionality And Bias In US Presidential Elections: How Geography Helped Bush Defeat Gore But Couldn't Help Kerry Beat Bush, R. Johnston - r.johnstonbristol.ac.uk, D. Rossiter, C. Pattie, Nov. 2005, online 2005/08/01, Political Geography, DOI: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2005.06.009
Illuminating the Shadow of the Future, Ann Arbor, Mi 05/09/23-25
Open Network of Centres of Excellence in Complex Systems - Brainstorming Meeting, Paris, France 05/09/19-23
Complexity, Science & Society Conference 2005, U. Liverpool, UK 2005/09/11-14
ECAL 2005 - VIIIth European Conference on Artificial Life,
Canterbury, Kent, UK 2005/09/5-9
T. Irene Sanders, Executive Director and Founder, The Washington Center for Complexity & Public Policy, 05/08/27, QuickTime video (10:38 min), Podcast
- North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2005 Conference, Virtual Conference Network, St. Pete's Beach, Florida, 05/06/09-11
- Understanding Complex Systems - Computational Complexity and Bioinformatics, Virtual Conference Network, Urbana-Champaign, Il, UIUC, 05/05/16-19
- Nonlinearity, Fluctuations, and Complexity, with a celebration of the 65th birthday of Gregoire Nicolis. , Complexity Session, Universite' Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 05/03/16
- World Economic Forum , Davos, Switzerland, 05/01/26-30
1st European Conference on Complex Systems, Torino, Italy, 04/12/5-7
From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela (1946-2001), Paris, France, 2004/06/18-20
Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture, Brussels, Belgium, 04/05/26-28
International Conference on Complex Systems 2004, Boston, 04/05/16-21
Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos: Lab Demonstrations, Strogatz, Steven H., Internet-First University Press, 1994
- CERN Webcast Service, Streamed videos of Archived Lectures and Live Events
- Dean LeBaron's Archive of Daily Video Commentary, Ongoing Since February 1998
- Edge Videos
Systems Thinking and Complexity Science: Insights for Action, , 11th Ann ANZSYS Conf/Managing the Complex V
Christchurch, New Zealand, 05/12/05-07
- 2005 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS'2005), Hong Kong, China, 05/12/15-19
3rd Biennial Seminar on the Philosophical, Methodological, and Epistemological Implications of Complexity Theory, Havana, Cuba, 06/01/09-12
- One-Week Intensive Course: Complex Physical, Biological and Social Systems, Cambridge, MA, 06/01/09-13
The Second International Workshop on Biologically Inspired
Approaches to Advanced Information Technology , Senri Life Science Center, Osaka, Japan, 06/01/26-27
Intl Wkshp and Sem, Dynamics on Complex Networks and Applications, Dresden, Germany, 06/02/06-03/03
- FRACTAL 2006 Complexity and Fractals in Nature, 9th Intl Multidisciplinary Conf, Vienna, Austria, 06/02/12-15
'The Application of Complexity Science to Human Affairs , Milton Keynes, UK, 06/02/28
2nd Intl Nonlinear Science Conf, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 06/03/10-12
- 18th European Meetings on Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR), Vienna, Austria, 06/04/18-21
5th Intl Joint Conf on Autonomous Agents And Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2006)
Future University, Hakodate, Japan, )6/05/08-12
- Alife X - The 10th Intl Conf on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems,Bloomington, Indiana, 06/06/03-07
Intl. Conference on Complex Systems Boston, MA, 06/06/25-30
NKS 2006: The Wolfram Science Conference, Washington, D.C., 06/06/15-18
Intl Conf on Complex Systems (ICCS)
Boston, Ma, 06/06/25-30
2006 Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2006),
Seattle, Washington, USA, 06/07/08-12
50th Anniversary Summit of AI, Monte Verita, Switzerland, 06/07/09-14
World Conference on Social Simulation (WCSS-06) , Kyoto, Japan, 06/08/21-25
Call for Papers - Book Announcements
- The Editorial Board of
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
is pleased to announce the first of two special issues on nonlinear methodology. Part 1, Broad Issues, will appear in October, 2005
Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, © 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved. This book is now available for free on the Internet, 05/10
- Special Issue of
E:CO (Emergence, Complexity and Organization): Complexity and Narrative,
Submit an abstract (< 1000 words) to Ken Baskin (firstname.lastname@example.org), David Boje (email@example.com) and Kurt Richardson (firstname.lastname@example.org), 05/09/21