To succeed as network orchestrators, companies must understand what they do best and then use information standards to build a platform across which network participants will interact.
- The Future Of The Networked Company, Remo Häcki , Julian Lighton ,The McKinsey Quarterly, 2001 Number 3
Excerpt: What holds networks together? Why did so many form almost simultaneously? The same thing that helped a patchwork of US local railroads become the basis of a continental economy: standards. Once standard-gauge track was extended to the West, by government order during the Civil War, the time it took to cross the United States fell from months to mere days. The standard-gauge track of the present-data standardization-allows information on orders, delivery times, and payments to flow as freely between organizations as it formerly had within them.
- Beyond The Unbundled Corporation, Marc Singer, The McKinsey Quarterly, 2001 Number 3
The first stage of Blue Sky's assembly at NCAR, code-named Black Forest, will line up more than 300 IBM SP Supercomputers to deliver computing power equal to 2 trillion calculations per second (…)
- IBM Building The First 'Self-Aware' Supercomputer, Dan Neel, InfoWorld, 01/11/09
Excerpt: Some things we got right -- even righter than we ever had a reason to suspect. Others, well, who could have known?
In analyzing these issues, the contributors to HAL's Legacy have done us all a great service. They've given us so much more than a scorecard for the film and novel. These creators of the real technology and science have shown the reasons for the way things developed -- and may continue to develop -- to 2001 and beyond.
Excerpt: Based on Stork's HAL's Legacy: 2001's computer as dream and reality (MIT Press), the documentary moves between clips from Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke's 1968 epic film "2001: A Space Odyssey" and leading research labs such as the MIT AI Lab, MIT Media Lab, Bell Labs, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, IBM TJ Watson Lab, Intel Corporation, KurzweilAI.net, Cycorp, Mitsubishi Electric Research Lab and the Arthur C. Clarke Center (Sri Lanka), all to answer the question: It's 2001: Where's HAL?
- '2001: HAL's Legacy' to air on PBS Nov. 27, KurzweilAI.net, 01/11/07
Excerpts: Wireless in all its forms is a big theme at this year's Comdex. OpenWave System's Don Listwin touts the freedom of surfing the Web on a cell phone, while admitting that the technology still has a ways to go.
Cisco CEO John Chambers wants the Internet everywhere. Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates holds up the Tablet PC as an example of the bright future he says is in store for technology. (…)
Sony's Kunitake Ando says it's high time we moved away from a PC-centric technology world.
- COMDEX 2001, CNet Video WebCasting
Excerpts: The relationship between DNA damage from solar UVB [ultra violet B, Ed.] exposure and deficiencies in repair, leading to mutagenesis, genetic instability, and eventual carcinogenesis, provides a deceptively simple explanation for the major clinical features of XP [Xeroderma pigmentosum, a skin condition, Ed.] and has provided a paradigm for environmentally induced human cancer. These diseases are, however, much more complex at all levels (…) , depending in part on the precise site of the mutations in the genes.
- DNA Repair On The Brain, R. R. Laposa, J. E. Cleaver, PNAS 2001;98 12860-12862
Excerpt: A primitive type of glial cell serves as the stem cells that actually generate the brain's neurons. Even in adults, these glial cells can form new neurons, scientists are finding.
Evidence presented in a symposium supports the idea that the radial glial cells are actually the stem cells that give rise to neurons, and are not just directing their migration passively. Magdalena Götz and colleagues at the Max-Plank Institute of Neurobiology find that a transcription factor, Pax6, is used in the radial glial cells that are forming neurons.
- Glial Cells Build The Brain, Investigator: Magdalena Gotz, Roberta Friedman, BioMedNet Conference Report, 01/11/11
This does not mean, however, that downing a fatty steak will enhance a person's brain power. Cholesterol levels in the blood do not determine the brain's supply, as blood cholesterol molecules are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, researchers explain.
- Cholesterol Helps Brain Cells Communicate: Study, Amy Norton, Reuters Health/Yahoo!
Contributing Editor's Note: Mathematical modeling is applied to various disciplines in science and analysis is attempted. In a population, common properties are studied in this approach rather then the differences among the individual members. But the real issue is how far and how correctly a system can be reduced to equations, especially in the field of biology or genetics which is under question in the following article. The commentator feels that developed concepts like bifurcation, chaos etc. used to 'good' equation can make good breakthrough, compared to attempting the 'molecular description'. So he calls for to 'forge a new kind of science, and a new kind of mathematics, which really makes use of the strengths of all those areas'.
Excerpts: The snowflake has a small number of ingredients, but those ingredients are very general and very powerful.(&) the whole point of physics is to capture the symmetries of the Universe, meaning that the laws of nature are the same at all places and times. The next ingredient is dynamics, systems that change over time. The pattern you see in a snowflake is a record of how it grew. And the complexity of the patterns is related to chaos - the ability of a dynamical system that's following rules to do very complicated, almost random-looking things.
- Biodiversity And Ecosystem Functioning: Current Knowledge And Future Challenges, M. Loreau, S. Naeem, P. Inchausti, J. Bengtsson, J. P. Grime, A. Hector, D. U. Hooper, M. A. Huston, D. Raffaelli, B. Schmid, D. Tilman, D. A. Wardle, Science 2001 294: 804-808
Abstract: Plant diversity and niche complementarity had progressively stronger effects on ecosystem functioning during a 7-year experiment, with 16-species plots attaining 2.7 times greater biomass than monocultures. Diversity effects were neither transients nor explained solely by a few productive or unviable species. Rather, many higher-diversity plots outperformed the best monoculture. These results help resolve debate over biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, show effects at higher than expected diversity levels, and demonstrate, for these ecosystems, that even the best-chosen monocultures cannot achieve greater productivity or carbon stores than higher-diversity sites.
- Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term Grassland Experiment,David Tilman, Peter B. Reich, Johannes Knops, David Wedin, Troy Mielke, Clarence Lehman, Science 2001 294: 843-845.
Excerpts: More than 250 million people worldwide are infected with the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, which can remain in the body for decades, causing debilitating fatigue and stomach cramps.(…)
The strategy is all about playing a "long game" with the host, McKerrow says. By keeping the person alive, the blood fluke has more chance of its offspring being passed on to others.(…)
"We could manipulate the immune signal to deceive the parasite into thinking that it shouldn't develop," he says.
- Biharzia Parasite Taps Into Immune System, James Randerson, New Scientist, 01/11/09
Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. (…)
These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.
- Viruses From Extreme Thermal Environments, George Rice, Kenneth Stedman, Jamie Snyder, Blake Wiedenheft, Debbie, Willits, Susan Brumfield, Timothy McDermott, and Mark J. Young, PNAS 2001;98 13341-13345
Excerpts: Geologists (…) have found a 300-million-year old cockroach that measures nearly 3.5 inches long, making it the largest complete fossil of a cockroach on record.
"Their success is based largely on their biology and habits," explained Piper. "Cockroaches have chewing mouth parts and rather general dietary requirements. They are nocturnal and forage for food and water close to cracks and crevices that they use for harborage. Cockroaches lay eggs in small cases that provide protection from an adverse environment, parasites, predators, and modern day insecticides."
- Prehistoric Cockroach Biggest On Record, Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News, 01/11/07
Excerpts: Behavioural scientist Keith Kendrick and his colleagues trained 20 sheep to recognize and distinguish 25 pairs of sheep faces and used electrodes to measure their brain activity. The researchers said results from the study showed the sheep could remember 50 faces for up to two years. (…)
In research reported in the journal Nature, Kendrick and his team showed that sheep, like humans, have a specialist system in the brain which allows them to distinguish between many different faces that look extremely similar.
- Sheep Smarter Than They Look, Nov. 8, Discovery/Reuters
Excerpt: Baboons in laboratory experiments showed signs of abstract thinking by picking out various images on a computer screen, a surprising finding that raises new questions about evolution and what distinguishes humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. Scientists in France and the United States cautioned that only two baboons participated in the comparative tests, and those monkeys were veterans of earlier cognitive experiments. And, the baboons had to repeat the tests thousands of times to learn how sets of images were the same or different. Even so, researchers said, the results suggest baboons are capable of analogical judgment - the kind of "this-is-to-that" comparisons that psychologists say is fundamental to reasoning. (...)
Excerpt: (...) When you are asleep, your mind uses dream time to process information for use when you are awake. Or, maybe not. (...)
Robert Stickgold, a professor at the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, produced research he believes provides compelling Evidence that the mind works hard at night.
"The brain is taking information and helping us put it into a form that we can understand," Stickgold said. "Understanding the complexity of the world is one of our brain's most difficult tasks. It needs more than our hours of awake time to get the job done." (...)
Excerpt: Twenty-eight ancient bone tools found in Blombos Cave in South Africa may finally prove that humans developed complex social behavior before leaving Africa.
Detailed analysis of the tools shows they were produced with expertise and precision and date back 70,000 years. Until now, the oldest such tools identified in Africa were just 25,000 years old. Sophisticated tools are linked at other excavation sites with the existence of complex human social activities such as trading, artwork, ritual and language.
- Tools Point To African Origin For Human Behaviour, Will Knight, New Scientist, 01/11/07
- The Acquisition Of Language By Children, Jenny R. Saffran, Ann Senghas, John C. Trueswell, PNAS 2001;98 12874-12875
Abstract: Children's long-latency auditory event-related potential (LLAEP) structure differs from that of adults. Functional significance of childhood event-related potential (ERP) components is largely unknown. In order to look for the functional correlates in adult and children's LLAEPs, stimulus-complexity effects were investigated in 8-10-year old children. To this end, auditory ERPs to vowels, acoustically matched complex tones, and sinusoidal tones were recorded. All types of stimuli elicited P100-N250-N450 ERP complex. Differences between the sinusoidal and complex tones were confined to the P100 and N250 peaks, complex tones eliciting larger responses. Vowels elicited smaller-amplitude N250 but larger-amplitude N450 than the complex tones. Some stimulus-complexity effects observed for N250 in children corresponded to those observed for the N1 in adults, whereas the N450 peak exhibited behaviour resembling that of the adult ERP components subsequent to the N1 wave.
- Children's auditory event-related potentials index sound complexity and "speechness", Int J Neurosci, Ceponiene R, Shestakova A, Balan P, Alku P, Yiaguchi K, Naatanen R., Int J Neurosci. 2001 Aug;109(3-4):245-60.
Excerpt: A core operation in speech production is the preparation of words from a semantic base. The theory of lexical access reviewed in this article covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation. The initial stages of preparation are concerned with lexical selection, which is zooming in on the appropriate lexical item in the mental lexicon. The following stages concern form encoding, i.e., retrieving a word's morphemic phonological codes, syllabifying the word, and accessing the corresponding articulatory gestures.
- Spoken Word Production: A Theory Of Lexical Access, Willem J. M. Levelt, PNAS 2001;98 13464-13471
Excerpts: The "costly signaling" hypothesis proposes that animal signals are kept honest by appropriate signal costs. (…) signal cost is unnecessary for honest signaling even when interests conflict.
(…) key features of language could plausibly arise and be maintained by natural selection when individuals have coincident interests. In real societies, however, individuals do not have fully coincident interests. We show that coincident interests are not a prerequisite (…), and find that many of the results derived previously can be expected also under more realistic models of society.
- Cost And Conflict In Animal Signals And Human Language, Michael Lachmann, Szabolcs Szamado, and Carl T. Bergstrom, PNAS 2001;98 13189-13194
Excerpt: In a finding that could help graphics designers make virtual reality more real, scientists have observed how the human brain performs precise geometric calculations to orient itself in space.
The study confirms that so-called angular declination, a cue thought involved in judging distances, comes into play in figuring out how far away an object is. The unconscious mental measure takes into account the angle between the ground and the line of sight to the target. The brain uses the geometry of triangles to determine the target's distance with great precision.
- Brain Finding May Finetune Virtual Reality, Lidia Wasowicz, UPI/InfoSpace, 01/11/08
- Distance Determined By The Angular Declination Below The Horizon, Teng Leng Ooi, Bing Wu, Zijiang J. He, Nature 414, 197 - 200 (2001)
Contributing Editor's Note: Application of neural network models to dynamical systems are not (of course) new. The classical example is the Hopfield network. The model proposed in the following work is a modified one. The authors consider a system when the presence of an external stimulus excites (activates) the control circuitry, which is otherwise inhibited. The control is switched on at the same time as the external signal is fed into the input line for stabilization.
Abstract: This paper proposes a simple methodology to construct an iterative neural network which mimics a given chaotic time series. This network is then iterated to produce a close approximation to the original chaotic dynamics. We then show how the chaotic dynamics may be stabilized using time-delayed feedback. Delayed feedback is an attractive method of control because it has a very low computational overhead (...).
> We also show how two independent copies of such a chaotic iterative network may be synchronized using variations of the delayed feedback method. Although less biologically plausible, these techniques may have interesting applications in secure communications.
- Neural Models Of Arbitrary Chaotic Systems: Construction And The Role Of Time Delayed Feedback In Control And Synchronization, A. J. Jones, A.P.M.Tsui & A. G.Oliveira, Complexity International, Draft Manuscript, October, 2001
- Contributed by Atin Das
Excerpts: Conventional wisdom says that the dissolved molecules simply spread further and further apart as a solution is diluted. But two chemists have found that some do the opposite: they clump together, first as clusters of molecules, then as bigger aggregates of those clusters. Far from drifting apart from their neighbours, they got closer together. (...)
What he discovered was a phenomenon new to chemistry. "When he diluted the solution, the size of the fullerene particles increased," says Geckeler. "It was completely counterintuitive," he says.
- Bizarre Chemical Discovery Gives Homeopathic Hint, Andy Coghlan, New Scientist, 01/11/07
Abstract: Complementarity is one of the main features underlying the interactions in biological and biochemical systems. Inspired by those systems we propose a model for the dynamical evolution of a system composed by agents that interact due to their complementary attributes rather than their similarities. Each agent is represented by a bit-string and has an activity associated to it; the coupling among complementary peers depends on their activity. The connectivity of the system changes in time respecting the constraint of complementarity. We observe the formation of a network of active agents whose stability depends on the rate at which activity diffuses in the system. The model exhibits a non-equilibrium phase transition between the ordered phase, where a stable network is generated, and a disordered phase characterized by the absence of correlation among the agents. The ordered phase exhibits multi-modal distributions of connectivity and activity, indicating a hierarchy of interaction among different populations characterized by different degrees of activity. This model may be used to study the hierarchy observed in social organizations as well as in business and other networks.
- A Parallel Distributed Processing Model Of Wason's Selection Task, Jacqueline P. Leighton and Michael R.W. Dawson, Cognitive Systems Research. Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2001
- Contributed by Carlos Gershenson
Contributing Editor's Note: Neural models are applied to learning etc. where the model performs one task only. But in situation where it has to solve more than one task, the neural model should be modular- according to the author of the following work. Multiple tasks are necessary, for example, organisms must recognize both the identity (What) and the spatial location (Where) of visually perceived objects. Accordingly Nervous systems that must learn this What and Where task have two separate neural pathways, that brings the concept of modular approach of neural models.
Abstract: Neural networks that learn the What and Where task perform better if they possess a modular architecture for separately processing the identity and spatial location of objects. We present two sets of simulations in which the network architecture is genetically inherited and it evolves in a population of neural networks in two different conditions. (1) both the architecture and the connection weights evolve and (2) the network architecture is inherited and it evolves but the connection weights are learned during life. The best results are obtained in condition (2).
- Evolving Modular Architectures For Neural Networks, Di Ferdinando, A., Calabretta, R. , Parisi, D., In R. French & J. Sougné (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop Evolution, Learning, and Development, pp. 253-262, London: Springer Verlag , 2001
- Contributed by Atin Das
Attorney General John Ashcroft, for example, is an absolutely critical player, with oversight over the FBI, Immigration and Naturalization Service and law enforcement generally. Ridge cannot direct Ashcroft; rather, he must ensure that he and Ashcroft work together in a constructive manner. (…)
Ridge's challenge is (…), to coordinate their fight against terrorism under its aegis."
- How NOT to Reorganize for Homeland Security, Ivo H. Daalder, I.M. Destler, The Hill, 01/11/07
Excerpt: Geologists are examining rocks visible in a recent videotape of Osama bin Laden, in hopes of shedding light on his whereabouts.
In theory, by identifying the rock types, they might provide new clues to bin Laden's movements. But so far they disagree in their interpretations of the videotape. That's partly because of uncertainty about the rocks' color and distance from the camera. (...)
The U.S. government has apparently approached geologists for their advice about the videotape. (...)
- The Role Of The Left Temporal Region Under The Cognitive Motor Demands Of Shooting In Skilled Marksmen, Kerick SE, McDowell K, Hung TM, Santa Maria DL, Spalding TW, Hatfield BD, Biol Psychol 2001 Dec 58(3): p. 263-77
- Nonlinear EEG Dynamics During Imagined Self-Paced Movements, Popivanov D, Dushanova J, Sauleva Z. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 2001;26(1-2):119-22.
- Learning To Coordinate In A Complex And Nonstationary World, Marsili M, Mulet R, Ricci-Tersenghi F, Zecchina R. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Nov 12;87(20):208701
- The Complexity Of Bioethics, Strohman RC, Nat Biotechnol. 2001 Nov;19(11):1007.
- Entropy, Entropy Rate, And Pattern Classification As Tools To Typify Complexity In Short Heart Period Variability Series, Porta A, Guzzetti S, Montano N, Furlan R, Pagani M, Malliani A, Cerutti S., IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2001 Nov;48(11):1282-91.
- Mean-Field Analysis Of Interacting Boson Models With Random Interactions, R. Bijker, A. Frank, arXiv. Paper ID: nucl-th/0111009 . 01/11/05
- Nanowires May Lead to Superfast Computer Chips, Kenneth Chang, NYTimes, 01/11/09
- Impact Of Pulsatility On The Ensemble Orderliness (Approximate Entropy) Of Neurohormone Secretion, AJP: Regu
- Functional Asymmetry In The Human Face: Perception Of Health In The Left And Right Sides Of The Face, R. A. Veronica and Z. W. Dahlia, Laterality 6(3):225-231 (2001)
- Chaotic Resonance - Methods And Applications For Robust Classification Of Noisy And Variable Patterns, R. Kozma and W. J. Freeman, Int. J. of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol.11, No.6, June 2001
- Brain And Chaos: When Two Giants Meet, A. Das, Brain & Mind, No 14, November 2001
- Kinetic Gating Mechanisms for BK Channels. When Complexity Leads to Simplicity, Magleby KL., J Gen Physiol. 2001 Nov;118(5):583-8
- Digitizing Decisions and Markets, Decision Sciences Institute Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 01/11/17-20
- America's Secret Weapon, Business 2.0 Live! Event, Stanford, 01/11/28
- II World Congress of Citizens Networks, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 01/12/05-07
- "Horizons In Complex Systems" in honor of H. Eugene Stanley's 60th birthday, Univ. Messina, Sicily, 01/12/05-08
- America's Secret Weapon, Business 2.0 Live! Event, Stanford, 01/12/07
- From Worker to Colony: Understanding the Organisation of Insect Societies, Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge, UK. , 01/12/07-08
- Intl Conf on Current Trends In Differential Equations And Dynamical Systems, Kanpur, India, 01/12/15-17
- Complex Systems, Modeling Nonlinear Natural and Human Systems, Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences, HICSS-35, Hawaii, 02/01/07-10
- 1st Biennial Seminar on Philosophical, Methodological & Epistemological Implications of Complexity Theory, La Habana, Cuba, 02/01/07-11
- Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics, Collective Phenomena and Complexity: Dynamical Model Formulation, Analysis and Symmetry, Canberra, Australia, 02/01/21-02/01
- AIS'2002: Towards Component-Based Modeling and Simulation, Lisbon, Portugal, 02/04/07-10
- World Conference NL 2002 - Networked Learning in a Global Environment: Challenges and Solutions for Virtual Education, Berlin, Germany, 02/05/01-04
- International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2002), Nashua, NH, 02/06/9-14
- 7th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition - ICMPC7, Sydney, 02/07/17-21
- Self-Organisation and Evolution of Social Behaviour, Monte Verità, Switzerland, 02/09/08-13
- Artificial Life VIII, UNSW, Sydney, Australia, 02/12/09-13